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Working Papers

Number:

ZU-WP 2017-25

Title:

Developing Adaptive Islamic Law Business Processes Models for Islamic Finance and Banking by Text Mining the Holy Quran and Hadith.

By: Munir Majdalawieh,Farhi Marir,Issam Tiemsani

Abstract:

Global Islamic finance assets grew from $200 billion to $1.8 trillion (IMF 2015) and is growing faster than the conventional banking sector. A large number of conventional financial institutions, especially banks are moving to an Islamic financial model that's comply with the Shari'a Law with little change to current conventional practices (reverse eningineer current business processes) to accommodate the new situation. In this study we will design and develop the business processes for the Islamic financial institutions' (IFIs) products by investigating and collecting information through Islamic literature, surveys and interviews of experts in Islamic jurisprudence, regulators, academic and Islamic finance and banking practitioners. Then we will assess and evaluate the findings by using a Qur'anic Financial Corpus and use computational and analytical approaches to mine the Qur'an (the Muslim Holy book) and the Hadith (actions and words of the prophet Muhammad peace be upon him) to uncover hidden knowledge on Islamic financial business processes. The knowledge acquired from this investigation will be translated into an Islamic financial process model to be adapted by Islamic and non-Islamic financial institutions. The outcome of this research will influence the future development, growth and diversification of Islamic Financial Services worldwide

Number:

ZU-WP 2017-24

Title:

A Preliminary Study of Research-Driven University Spin-off Companies in UAE

By: Farkhund Iqbal,Patrick C. K. Hung,Suaad Mohammed Qayed Ahmed Mohammed1

Abstract:

Entrepreneurship is the procedure of a new business development to make a profit in the market. In many countries, Technology Transfer Offices (TTOs) in research-driven universities serve as an intermediary between suppliers of innovations and those who can potentially commercialize them. TTOs are always run as cost-centers on campus, often have business or operation managers, and facilitate intellectual property licensing activities. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), TTOs are taking an important role in the evolution of a successful spin-off company from innovation to production to sales to sustainable profit. An innovative technology may be a research outcome and seem to have value as an application or product with commercial potential in the market. In this context, TTOs often support spin-off companies becoming a learning organization and easing into an articulated management of activities complementary to the research and design activities that create the innovation and drive the transition from innovation to product lines. That is, even though such academic entrepreneurs have built and run entities that are similar to small businesses, and even though these entrepreneurs have learned how to secure and manage revenues to sustain cash flows for their companies, they still may not be sustainable in the market. The long term of this research study aims to investigate the current situation of research-driven university entrepreneurship in UAE. This paper presents a preliminary study of two TTOs: Etisalat BT Innovation Center (EBTIC) at Khalifa University and Masdar Institute.

Number:

ZU-WP 2017-23

Title:

RFID adoption in healthcare organizations in UAE

By: Ahed Abugabah - PhD

Abstract:

Radio frequency identification (RFID) is currently regarded as one of the most promising technologies, and considered as one of the sixteen key technologies in the coming decade, specifically in terms of its use, pervasiveness, market demand and commercial availability. RFID is perceived as critical technology for many purposes and applications, such as improving the efficiency and effectiveness in business operations and improving customer service. This research therefore has a hedonic motivation in developing an incorporated view of theoretical framework to identify factors that affect RFID adoption in healthcare and providing an empirical analysis of the effect of both organizational and individual factors on the diffusion of RFID based on the health care industry. Unlike other studies, the current study places more attention on individual factors in addition to the organizational factors and technological factors in an attempt to better understand the phenomenon of RFID adoption in health care, which is described as a complex and a very demanding work environment. This study serves to fill a gap in the existing literature through explaining of how user factors can contribute to the adoption of RFID in healthcare and how such factors might lead to better understanding of the benefits, use and impacts of RFID in health care sector.

Number:

ZU-WP 2017-22

Title:

Uncovering Educational Barriers to Female Leadership in the United Arab Emirates

By: Dr. Afra Saeed Ahmad, Dr. Fatima AlDarmaki ,Rana Almutawa

Abstract:

According to statistics, Emirati women comprise of 12% of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) workforce and account for only 7% of the country's legislators, senior officials, and managers (Abdalla, 2015). The underrepresentation of women is alarming considering that the education rate of women is quite high. Specifically, females outperform males in school and the ratio of women in third level education is 85% (Al Kassadi, 2000). In addition, one study found that 92% of the women in UAE considered themselves very ambitious and wanted to aspire to hold a top job (Hewlett & Rashi, 2010). Jamali and colleagues (2005) note that the higher rates of enrollment in schools and universities have not been "paralleled by equal access to work opportunities at higher levels of organizations or equal access to fair and equitable pay." Consequently, it is important to identify the relevant factors that influence the disconnect between women’s educational experiences and aspirations and women's representation in leadership positions.

Number:

ZU-WP 2017-21

Title:

Happiness as a value of event organizers in Abu Dhabi

By: Natasa Slak Valek - PhD,Anestis K. Fotiadis - PhD

Abstract:

This study examines the perceived impact of events to happiness based on event organizers opinion. Specifically, the aim is to understand if event organizers consider promoting happiness and wellbeing as a value of their event, as well as what they consider as a successful event. A qualitative approach was used and finally seven events' organizers from the Emirate of Abu Dhabi in United Arab Emirates were interviewed. With 6-open ended questions the following attributes of an event were analysed: major marketing tools used to promote an event, values that the event tries to promote with an emphasis on happiness and perception of benefits. Results indicate that happiness as a value of events is not something that comes to the organizers by a recall of values, but after reminding 'happiness' they all agreed that this is what they do promote with their event, as well. Thus, actions need to be considered to implement happiness as a 'first-on-mind' value of events organized in Abu Dhabi (UAE).

Number:

ZU-WP 2017-20

Title:

Becoming an Accounting Professional: An Investigation of the Skills Needed by Female Emirati Nationals

By: Dina Aburous , Catherine Nickerson

Abstract:

The aim in this research is to investigate the skills needed by female Emirati nationals in order to be successful as accounting professionals in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in both the public and private sector. The research team first interviewed a number of senior female accountants working in the UAE, together with a period of time spent observing accountants in the workplace. They also conducted a survey of existing accounting teaching materials used in tertiary education across the country, and they interviewed several cohorts of female Zayed University (ZU) accounting majors during their period of internship to find out about their experiences in the workplace as neophyte accountants. The team then used this information to generate a set of guidelines for use in tertiary level accounting education at federal institutions in the UAE. The research recommends ways to increase levels of retention in the national labour force for senior female accountants, and in doing so, it contributes to the process of Emiratization.

Number:

ZU-WP 2017-19

Title:

The effectiveness of Using Social media in Government communication in UAE

By: Elsayed B. Darwish

Abstract:

Social media have proven to be convenient tools that can be used by government entities to increase openness and publicity, gain a greater understanding of public opinions, promote participation, transparency and engagement, as well as to reach many users at low cost. - The purpose of this paper is to explore the effectiveness of using social media by the government entities in UAE. It is a network analysis study seeking mainly quantitative data. 100 UAE government accounts, belong to (25) entities, were examined using web-based analytical tools. - The general findings of the study indicate that the UAE government communication entities accounts convey a rich picture of how these entities interact with their stakeholders on their social media. Most of them are performing an active role in terms of publicity, reach, marketing and transparency. However, the level of maturity of using social media in general has not matured yet and they are not effective to somewhat in communicating with the stakeholders in terms of participation and engagement. Also, it is indicated that there is a significant difference between the effectiveness of these entities in terms of reach, transparency and participation. In general, they do not utilize the full types, capacity and features of social media in their government communication. They are mainly depending on Tweeter and Facebook

Number:

ZU-WP 2017-18

Title:

Emirati Identity as an antecedent of fairness perceptions and behavior

By: Stijn Decoster,Maja Graso,Emily David,Jeroen Camps

Abstract:

The unprecedented ease of global mobility allows individuals to transcend national boundaries and develop intimate understanding of cultures other than their own. Anecdotally, those individuals might be expatriates on international assignments, citizens who are minorities in their own countries (e.g., United Arab Emirates), or colloquial third culture kids – perpetual global nomads who might ascribe little value to their identity as citizens of their own passport country. Academically, those individuals can be termed as bicultural or cultural hybrids, nomenclature which brings attention to this fusion of multiple identities. The resulting internalization of values, attitudes, and perceptions emerging from dynamic cultural mixing has been attributed to increased coexistence of multiple identities or self-perceptions among such individuals (Hermans & Kempen, 1998; Tweed, Conway, & Ryder, 1999; Gurin, Hurtado, & Peng, 1994; Phinney, 1990, 1991; Sellers, Smith, Shelton, Rowley, & Chavous, 1998; Brewer, 1991; Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, & Wetherell, 1987).

Number:

ZU-WP 2017-17

Title:

The United Arab Emirates as a Humanitarian Actor: Role in the Syrian Refugee Crisis

By: Umbreen Shaikh

Abstract:

Can a small Gulf country be considered a global humanitarian leader? What role has the United Arab Emirates played in the Syrian refugee crisis? What kind of policies has the UAE developed on migration and how would these apply or not apply to a specific type of migrant: the refugee? This paper will analyze the role of the UAE as a humanitarian actor specifically with regard to assisting Syrian refugees.

Number:

ZU-WP 2017-16

Title:

Urban road network crisis response management: time-sensitive decision optimization

By: Sinan Salman, Suzan Alaswad

Abstract:

With the increasing global stock of vehicles, traffic congestion is becoming more severe and costly in many urban road networks. Road network modeling and optimization are essential tools in predicting traffic flow and reducing network congestion. Markov chains are remarkably capable in modeling complex, dynamic, and large-scale networks; Google’s PageRank algorithm is a living proof. In this article, we leverage Markov chains theory and its powerful statistical analysis tools to model urban road networks and infer road network performance and traffic congestion patterns, and propose an optimization approach that is based on Genetic Algorithm to model network-wide optimization decisions. Such decisions target relief from traffic congestion arising from sudden network changes (e.g. rapid increase in vehicles flow, or lanes and roads closures). The proposed network optimization approach can be used in time-sensitive decision making situations such as crisis response management, where decision time requirements for finding optimal network design to handle such abrupt changes typically don’t allow for the traditional agent-based simulation and iterative network design approaches. We detail the mathematical modeling and algorithmic optimization approach and present preliminary results from a sample application.

Number:

ZU-WP 2017-15

Title:

Ethnic Identity and Wellbeing: Implicit in-group identity and language dominance predicts Wellbeing in Emirati Women

By: Ian Grey,Justin Thomas

Abstract:

Identifying the determinants of psychological wellbeing occupies a central, and important, place in psychological research. Over the past twenty years, a large body of work has accumulated articulating both the constituent elements of wellbeing and the factors that promote and maintain it. However, much of this research has focused attention on the broad factors contributing to wellbeing such as the respective roles played by autonomy, positive interpersonal relations, environmental mastery, self-acceptance and purpose in life (Ryff & Keyes, 1995; Seligman, 2000). One variable and its relationship with wellbeing that has attracted some attention, is the role of cultural identity. Early work on this domain suggested that the incidence of psychological distress was higher in ethnic groups in their adopted countries. For instance, Patel (1992) reported that young British Asian women living in the United Kingdom experienced more psychological difficulties than their white counterparts. Of particular interest was that such a finding appeared to be generation specific and that the findings did not extend to Asian women of grandmother status but who were also living in the United Kingdom (Quraishi & Evangeli, 2007). One broad avenue of interpretation suggests that these age differences are attributable to the concept of cultural identity with older individuals having a more established identity but younger individuals experiencing more flux in identity and perhaps more cultural conflicts as a result. Research has been however equivocal in respect of this issue with Quraishi & Evangeli (2007) reporting that cultural identity status appeared to have minimal overall impact on psychological wellbeing. However, the authors suggest that the relationship may be far less pronounced in non-clinical samples in contrast to clinical samples (i.e., those reporting distress or engaging in self-injury).

Number:

ZU-WP 2017-14

Title:

Stock Market Listing, Investor Myopia and Innovation: The Role of Nominal Share Prices

By: Huong LE, Ji-Chai LIN,G. Mujtaba MIAN

Abstract:

Lower nominal stock prices tend to attract more speculative trading, causing higher price volatility, which may force managers of publically listed firms to excessively focus on short-term earnings at the expense of R&D. We hypothesize that firms investing more in R&D prefer to set higher share prices to mitigate investor short-termism and foster innovation. Consistent with this hypothesis, we find that firms with high R&D capital (1) choose higher share prices at their initial listing, and (2) are subsequently less likely to engage in stock splits to bring down their share prices. Justifying these price management actions, we find that high share prices are negatively associated with proxies of investor myopia. We also show that high share prices are positively associated with future productivity of innovation, after controlling for a host of other factors. Our results suggest that managers of publicly listed firms use nominal share price as a tool to enhance innovation.

Number:

ZU-WP 2017-13

Title:

MATERIALISM AND UAE NATIONALS

By: Damien Arthur,Claire Sherman,Noora Saeed Al Hameli,Salama Yousef Al Marzooqi

Abstract:

Amongst examined populations, research has found materialistic values to be empirically associated with lower levels of life satisfaction. While the causes of materialistic values are plentiful, extant research suggests that a primary driver is the rapid urbanization and commercialization of a society, with youth being more susceptible. The dramatic transformation of the UAE over the past four decades, coupled with the relatively young population, increases the likelihood that materialistic values have been cultivated among the population. This study sheds light on the interesting but under researched case of materialism in the UAE. A self-report survey measured the materialism and life satisfaction levels of 210 UAE residents (80 nationals and 130 non-nationals). Materialistic values were found to be negatively correlated with life satisfaction amongst our sample. In addition, UAE nationals reported significantly higher levels of materialism than non-national residents. To uncover the causes and consequences of high levels of materialism amongst UAE nationals, four focus groups and 25 in-depth interviews were conducted. Five major consequences of materialistic values were revealed: 1) the development of an increasingly competitive and narcissistic society, 2) the development of a more judgmental and less accepting society, 3) the use of consumption as a tool to boost confidence and self-esteem, 4) an increase in family conflicts and the delaying of marriage, and 5) a lack of savings and an increase in debt. The primary causes of materialistic values were: 1) the rapid development and commercialization of the UAE, 2) the consequences of materialism propagating the values in a self-perpetuating cycle, 3) narcissism and competition on social media, 4) Emirati values of generosity, hospitality, perfection and pride, and 5) parenting and youths lack of financial responsibilities. To advance life satisfaction levels within the UAE population, we propose that policy makers implement awareness campaigns, educational programs, and legislation to reduce the current levels of materialism.

Number:

ZU-WP 2017-12

Title:

Destination image: A comparison of French and Australian consumers stopover destination preferences for long-haul travel

By: Filareti Kotsi, Steven Pike, Vesselina Tossan

Abstract:

In the first forty years of destination marketing literature there has been little research published in relation to stopover destination image. While destination image represents an important and popular research stream, most studies to date have not been context-specific. That is to say the image of a destination has commonly been measured without reference to the travel situation. The aim of this research was to identify attributes of destinations deemed salient to consumers when considering a stopover during long haul travel. Underpinned by Personal Construct Theory, the study used the Repertory Test in personal interviews with French consumers. The findings are then compared to attributes elicited from Australian consumers to identify any differences in attribute salience between these northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere travellers. The commonality of stopover destination attribute salience between the two samples will enable the development of a questionnaire to measure stopover destination image. A number of stopover destination attributes were identified that have not been commonly used in generic destination image studies. The study highlights the value of engaging with the consumer in the questionnaire design stage, and goes some way to support the proposition that due to the short stay nature of stopovers during long haul travel destination attribute salience might differ to that for other travel situations.

Number:

ZU-WP 2017-11

Title:

Energy Management for Internet of Things-enabled Smart Cities in the UAE (Working Paper)

By: Asad Masood Khattak

Abstract:

The drastic increase in urbanization over the past few years in UAE requires sustainable, efficient, and smart solutions for transportation, governance, environment, quality of life, etc. Smart city solutions must have the ability to efficiently utilize energy and handle associated challenges. Electric Vehicles (EVs) are considered as a step forward towards the green environmental and economical transportation. In order to increase the penetration of EVs in the future transportation system, the smart charging management for EVs becomes necessary to fulfill the charging needs efficiently. Internet of Things (IoT) is an enabling technology through which efficient charging management for EVs can be done in order to manage EVs, efficiently utilize consumer resources, and save money. In this work, we will present a brief overview of charging management for EVs and associated challenges in smart cities. We will further investigate placement of charging stations and scheduling optimization for EVs charging in smart cities. We will present experimental and simulation results to exhibit the tremendous impact of the proposed schemes/ algorithms on the performance of IoT-enabled smart charging management for EVs.

Number:

ZU-WP 2017-10

Title:

Oil Wealth and Economic Growth Revisited: A Bayesian Model Averaging Approach

By: K. Peren Arin

Abstract:

We investigate the effect of oil revenues on long-term economic growth within a Bayesian framework that accounts for model uncertainty. Our anal- ysis is based on an updated cross country data set for long term growth in the period 1970-2014 including 91 countries and 54 potential growth deter- minants. Initially, we do not find any empirical evidence for the existence of the \natural resource curse" in our sample. On the contrary, we document a robust positive effect of oil rents on long-term economic growth. Then, we introduce interaction terms of oil rents with potential conditions under which oil dependency can lead to sub-standard growth. Our second set of results shows that the interaction of institutional quality and oil revenues has a ro- bust positive effect on growth, while the constituent oil rent term is no longer robust. We conclude that institutional quality is necessary condition for oil revenues to have a growth-enhancing effect.

Number:

ZU-WP 2017-09

Title:

An exploration of the contextual factors related to an English Language Program in the Gulf becoming a Learning Organization

By: Wayne Jones,Burcu Tezcan-Unal,Suzanne Littlewood

Abstract:

This single-case study was conducted by three practitioner researchers working for the foundational English language program at an English-medium higher education institution in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Since 2013, the department has been going through a process of transition from a general English language skills curriculum to an English for General Academic Purposes (EGAP) curriculum, which has demanded a revision of personal and institutional philosophies of language, learning and teaching. The researchers hypothesised that the major changes that have occurred in the department in relation to reframing mental models, creating a shared vision, strengthening team work practices and utilising individual expertise for common organisational goals might have influenced the department into becoming a Learning Organization (Senge, 1997). The research was designed to explore the contextual factors in the department using the LO framework as its theoretical basis. This paper argues that the scholarly endeavour of an academic unit working on a curriculum issue provides an opportunity for professional development institutionally in terms of becoming a community of practice which displays features of a learning organisation. (Not sure if this should be in introduction)

Number:

ZU-WP 2017-08

Title:

Career Decision-Making: Empowering Emirati Females for Future Success

By: Dr. Lavious Daniels, Dr. JR Ratliff

Abstract:

Career decision-making is one of the most challenging tasks that college students will face. Based on Social Cognitive Career Theory, this descriptive study employed the Career Development Self-Efficacy Scale Short Form (CDSE-SF) and a focus group to examine the perceptions Emirati female students hold about their ability to make decisions regarding their career choices. Undergraduate students (n=233) from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) participated in this study. The results indicated no significant difference in the students career decision-making self-efficacy (CDSE) whether they attended private or public high school, nor were their significant differences based on family involvement. Data also indicated that there were no significant differences in these students CDSE versus other college students around the world. Through the utilization of a focus group, we found that friends and family are the biggest influence in the career decision-making process for many students. However we found that family members often serve as obstacles to this process for many students as they may have negative stereotypes regarding some majors. Themes from the focus group also revealed that friends and introductory courses helped to increase CDSE.

Number:

ZU-WP 2017-07

Title:

New Filmmakers in the UAE

By: Alejandra Val Cubero - PhD

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to take a tour of the recent history of cinema in the United Arab Emirates and to focus on the new generation of directors who are changing the country's audiovisual map. This research on cinema in the UAE arises from the assumption that the cinematographic production of a country is part of its social reality, since it is developed within a certain culture. It then influences its history, its economy, its politics, its customs, and its imaginaries. For Pierre Sorlin (1977) cinema is a reality where "the visible" of a society is presented. Or as Jean-Pierre Esquenazi (2003) would say, cinema is an expression of the social and cultural field that the filmmaker uses to create his work.

Number:

ZU-WP 2017-06

Title:

CSR and public relations in the Middle East: Relationships among diversity climate, perceptions of CSR and employee engagement

By: Ganga Dhanesh - PhD,Gaelle Duthler - PhD

Abstract:

Public relations and communication management scholarship in the field of corporate social responsibility (CSR) have generated a substantial body of scholarship from a strategic, instrumental perspective (Coombs & Holladay, 2012; Dhanesh, 2014; Du, Bhattacharya & Sen, 2010). The strategic approach argues that being socially responsible can generate mutual benefits for organizations and their publics, particularly reputational, relational and legitimacy returns for organizations. However, most of the work generated in this area of scholarship has focused on the customer stakeholder group, although employees have been identified as an important stakeholder group with respect to CSR. Responding to the call for more research on employees and CSR, scholars have started examining CSR as a tool for enhancing organizational attractiveness to prospective employees, enhancing organizational commitment and strengthening organization-public relationships (Dhanesh, 2012; 2014; Kim & Park, 2011, Lin, Tsai, Joe, & Chiu, 2012; Seltzer, Gardner, Bichard & Callison, 2012). This study proposes to augment research on CSR from the perspective of employee publics by examining relationships amongst diversity climate, perceptions of CSR and employee engagement.

Number:

ZU-WP 2017-05

Title:

Exploring Culturally Attuned Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) as a Means of Improving Quality of life, Emotional Well Being and Academic Performance of Emirati College Students

By: Justin Thomas,Ian Grey,Peter Kinderman

Abstract:

Derived primarily from the Buddhist tradition, mindfulness has become an integral aspect of second-generation approaches to cognitive therapy. Research exploring such mindfulness-based approaches, is generally positive about their efficacy, particularly with regard to relapse prevention. Less well explored is the acceptability of these approaches, particularly among individuals spontaneously expressing theistic worldviews such as Islam. It is argued that many of the defining principles and techniques used within mindfulness-based approaches are congruent with Islamic values, and in some cases they are highly resonant with specific Islamic directives aimed at shaping human cognition and behaviour. This paper explores the need for culturally appropriate psychotherapeutic interventions in the Muslim world, with a specific focus on the use of mindfulness-based approaches within the Arabian Gulf states. It is argued that Mindfulness based approaches, can be highly resonant with Islamic thought and practice when presented appropriately. This paper details several bridging concepts aimed at helping Muslim participants/clients/therapists make connections between mindfulness-based approaches and the Islamic tradition. An important determinant of any intervention's effectiveness is its acceptability and perceived religio-cultural appropriateness among the target population. We argue that the use of such bridging concepts will, in many cases, make mindfulness-based approaches more appropriate and effective for clients with worldviews shaped by Islam.

Number:

ZU-WP 2017-04

Title:

Emirati Women's Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Menopause and Hormone Replacement Therapy: Implications for Health-Care Policy

By: Qasim M. Al-Shboul1, Linda Smail1,Ghufran A. Jassim2

Abstract:

Menopause is a natural biological process referring to the end of women's reproductive state due to ovarian failure and occurs at the ages between 45 and 55 years with an average onset of 51 years. Menopausal women usually experience common symptoms that include sleep disorder, mood alteration, hot flashes, depression, urinary tract infections, vaginal infections, increased health risks for osteoporosis, and cardiovascular diseases that can be treated effectively by the Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT). A community – based study of a random sample of 408 Emirati women aged 30 – 64 years attending primary health care centers in the Emirate of Dubai will be conducted. The study will investigate the knowledge and attitudes of the Emirati women in Dubai Emirate towards menopause and HRT. The participants will be interviewed using a structured questionnaire in Arabic, which includes socio-demographic variables, Menopause Knowledge Scale (MKS) and Attitude Towards Menopause (ATM) scale. Relevant descriptive statistics and associations will be obtained. The study findings will provide information about Emirati women's knowledge and attitudes towards menopause and HRT that enables health care policy makers to create and formulate a health care policy that enhances the menopausal women's quality of life.

Number:

ZU-WP 2017-03

Title:

Distinction in locals support for a major and mega event - case of EXPO 2020 and F1 in UAE

By: Natasa Slak Valek

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of the present research is to examine and explain any possible variance in the perception of local Emiratis towards hosting a major and a mega event. A Grand Prix Formula One was considered for a major event, which is organized yearly in Abu Dhabi and EXPO Dubai 2020 was researched as an example of a one-time mega event. Methods: Data of local Emiratis living in UAE were collected in-person. A selfadministered questionnaire was developed that consisted of tourism perception, negative and positive impacts, and individual support. The questionnaire was adjusted to each event and N=360 were collected for EXPO 2020 and N=533 were received for F1 questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and t-test were used to administer the differences in events’ perception.

Number:

ZU-WP 2017-02

Title:

Boardroom Diversity, Corporate Governance & Innovation in the UAE Banks

By: Perihan Iren

Abstract:

Corporate governance carries strategic importance and should be addressed correctly by decision makers. Corporate finance literature suggests that diverse boards are a part of good corporate governance practice. However, it is not clear how good corporate governance- particularly diverse board characteristics might affect the corporate innovation and innovation search strategies. Utilizing the data from 25 banks listed in the UAE stock exchanges, this study evaluates the impact of boardroom diversity on firm innovativeness both before and after the drop in the oil prices. The results show that while gender and education do not significantly affect innovativeness of banks, having more experienced and independent board members enhances the innovation. The effect of experienced board members on innovation is more pronounced during the oil price drop period, while the effect of independent board members decrease after the drop in the oil prices.

Number:

ZU-WP 2017-01

Title:

On The future of energy and resource security in the United Arab Emirates

By: Fares M. Howari,Yousef Nazzal

Abstract:

The UAE is making notable progress in diversifying its economy through tourism, trade, and manufacturing. However, in the near term, oil, natural gas, and associated industries will continue to account for the majority of economic activity. Rising gas demand from power stations and industrial users such as petrochemical makers and steel manufacturers has turned the UAE into a net gas importer in the past decade, triggering multi-billion dollar investments into nuclear power and renewables. This paper looks into the patterns of energy production and consumption in the UAE in the context the changing nature of global energy markets. The paper will analyze current and proposed national energy initiatives, and assess their impacts on the future of the country. The research analyzed a wide range of statistics obtained from various sources to highlight the current situation and predicts some future scenarios. The study also adhered SWOT analyses of the energy scene in UAE and examined the impact of some external factors. The demand for electricity in the UAE, which is almost exclusively generated from natural gas-fired power plants, is set to rise at a rate of about 9 percent per annum through to 2020.

Number:

ZU-WP 2016-001

Title:

Women Empowerment and Participation in Labor Force in the UAE (in Arabic)

By: Mouawiya Al Awad

Abstract:

This report reviews the legislative environment for the economic empowerment of women in the UAE, their participation in the labor market and economic activity, the factors affecting women's participation in the labor market, women's associations and development, and concludes with recommendations on sustainability and equity requirements for women's economic empowerment in the country.

Number:

ZU-WP 2016-003

Title:

INSTITUTING RULES AND POLICIES REGULATING THE DOMESTIC WORKERS RECRUITMENT

By: Habibul Khondker,Nicolina Kamenou-Aigbekaen

Abstract:

The main aim of this paper is to institute a set of regulatory policies drawing upon the practices and experiences of other countries and in light of the local context to improve the recruitment of the domestic worker sectors. The goal of these policies will be to make the recruitment process more transparent and ethical in order to protect the rights and ensure welfare of the domestic workers as well as the employers. The paper will highlight the mechanism of improving the recruitment agencies sector and facilitate an amicable and productive relationship between employers and employees.

Number:

ZU-WP 2016-002

Title:

REFORMING THE RECRUITMENT PROCESS OF LOW-SKILLED LABOR IN THE UAE

By: Wifag Adnan,Christina Zenker

Abstract:

By establishing a central licensing authority (CLA) in the UAE that is managed by reputable placement agencies in the UAE and overseen by a government entity (including but not limited to MoHRE) can largely resolve many issues involved in the recruitment process, while imposing minimum administrative costs. The CLA has two key responsibilities, the first of which is to reform the recruitment process through Models 1-3, and the second is to create a clearing house for jobseekers and employers.

Number:

ZU-WP 2015-003

Title:

AN ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC RISKS FOR ABU DHABI (in Arabic)

By: Mouawiya Al Awad, Kerim Arin

Abstract:

This research discusses different scenarios for actual or potential economic risks in the Abu Dhabi economy, focusing on elements of understanding, analyzing and evaluating economic risks and developing appropriate strategies for managing them.

Number:

ZU-WP 2015-002

Title:

EARLY RETIREMENT, BENEFITS AND THE COST OF LIVING AMONG NATIONALS IN ABU DHABI

By: DR. MOUAWIYA AL AWAD,DR. WIFAG ADNAN,DR. EDA ORHUN

Abstract:

Social and security authorities in the UAE, including the Abu Dhabi Retirement and Pension Benefit Fund (ADRPBF) may face three main challenges: Demographic, financial and early retirement. Due to the increase in life expectancy at birth (hence, number of years lived after retirements) and decrease in death rates, demographic challenges refer to the continuous increase in the numbers of retirees and their beneficiaries, which could create a kind of imbalance between revenues and entitlements. Financial challenges may arise in the future if financial resources are insufficient to meet the expenses. This may be largely due to the lack of any control on salary increases in addition to the lack of a higher ceiling for the salaries of the insured at the end of the service. Early retirement (retirement before the legal age) may impose a large financial burden on the system in the future and intensifies the loss in the contribution of experienced nationals to the development of the nation.

Number:

ZU-WP 2015-001

Title:

LABOR COMPETITIVENESS INDICATORS IN THE UAE

By: DR. MOUAWIYA AL AWAD,DR. TIM ROGMANS

Abstract:

Labor competitiveness indicators relate to the way a country's institutions, policies and factors related to labor markets impact the country's productivity and economic performance. Maintaining or improving the UAE's performance on these key labor market competitiveness indicators will not only result in increased prosperity but will also contribute to each of four pillars of the country's 2021 vision (United in Responsibility, United in Destiny, United in Knowledge, United in Prosperity).

Number:

ZU-WP 2014-001

Title:

Teaching competencies in UAE Public Schools (in Arabic)

By: Mouawiya Al Awad, Abdelrahman Baqrain, Masa Al-Kurdi

Abstract:

This research aims at exploring elements related to teaching competencies of teachers in the public schools of the educational districts of the six emirates that are linked to the Ministry of Education in the UAE (Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm Al Quwain, Ras Al Khaimah and Fujairah). In particular, the research assesses the status of teachers in public schools, as the most important actors in the educational process, to identify obstacles to education and training activities and to develop policies to avoid them, as well as to identify the strengths of these processes in order to strengthen them.

Number:

ZU-WP 2013-001

Title:

Emiratis Labor Protection Policies and their Effect on Private Sector (in Arabic)

By: Mouawiya Al Awad, Steffen Hertog

Abstract:

This report monitors the current protectionist policies of Emiratis in the UAE labor market and their impact on the situation of their employment in the private sector. It also discusses some world best practices that can be applied in the UAE and identifies other policies that can improve the conditions of the citizens in the labor market and their expected effects

Number:

ZU-WP 2013-002

Title:

Immigration and National Security in the UAE: Between Realism & Constructivism

By: Dr. Mouawiya Alawad,Dr. Kristian Alexander,Dr. Adam Luedtke

Abstract:

This research project empirically analyses the impact of immigration (and related issues like citizenship and demographics) on national security in the UAE. We identify a range of security threats hypothesized to arise from immigration, whether perceived or "real", and test them in the current Emirati context. We base our analyses on 30 interviews of Emirati citizens with significant access to decision-making venues and/or reflective expertise on the issue, to gain a cross-section of current Emirati thinking on security threats stemming from immigration

Number:

ZU-WP 2013-003

Title:

Wages in Occupations Suitable for Emiratization in the UAE (in Arabic)

By: Mouawiya Al Awad

Abstract:

This research provides an analysis of wages of 155 occupational groups that are deemed suitable for emiratization in the UAE labor market. In addition, the research provides some elementary discussions of intervention policies related to forced emiratization and minimum wages

Number:

ZU-WP 2012-007

Title:

Classification of Companies in the UAE Private Sector (in Arabic)

By: Mouawiya Al Awad

Abstract:

The main objectives of companies classification the UAE private sector are to increase the number of Emiratis working in the private sector, to increase the cultural diversity of foreign labors within companies in the labor market, to increase in the proportion of skilled labor out of total employment in the labor market and to reduce companies labor violations related to treatment of workers. This research examines the most important changes resulting from this act on private sector companies and overall employment, as well as on opportunities of success of Emiratization policies in the private sector.

Number:

ZU-WP 2012-006

Title:

Labor Mobility in UAE Private Sector (in Arabic)

By: Mouawiya Al Awad

Abstract:

This research discusses the impact of relaxing some restriction on internal mobility in the UAE labor market on internal mobility within the labor market in general, as well as monitoring the effects of the degrees of increased flexibility in different sectors of the market. It also monitors the increased rates of internal mobility of employment in terms of type, skills, ages, gender and educational levels. This monitoring helps to understand the effectiveness of the decree in increasing the flexibility of the labor market, and comparing this effectiveness within the different economic sectors, as well as within the labor groups with their broad divisions.

Number:

ZU-WP 2012-005

Title:

SOCIAL IMPACT OF RELIANCE ON EXPATRIATES IN DAILY LIFE IN UAE

By: DR. AKRAM AL ARISS,DR. KRISTIAN ALEXANDER,DR. MOUAWIYA ALAWAD

Abstract:

The Gulfs cities have witnessed a tremendous flow of human capital in recent decades. More than 75% of the population of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) is made up of foreign nationals. In Dubai, for example, expatriates constitute more than 85 % of the total workforce. The diversification of business strategies in the region has led to expatriates working in all industrial and service sectors. The expatriates' presence has therefore had an impact on the working lives of the Emirati workforce. In particular, as a numeric majority, expatriates influence the work habits, management, and leadership style of Emiratis. In the same way, Emirati top leaders and managers influence the way work and organizations are structured and the status of expatriates in the UAE. Nevertheless, present research tells us very little about the topic of expatriate-local interaction and diversity in the workplace. This report bridges an important knowledge gap by shedding light on the impact that expatriates working in the UAE have on the Emirati workforce and organizations.

Number:

ZU-WP 2012-004

Title:

The Impact of the Labor policy on demographics

By: Dr. Mouawiya Al Awad,Dr. George Naufal,Dr. Shaikha al Shamsi

Abstract:

As a country that relies heavily on imported workers, the impact of the United Arab Emirates' (UAE) labor policies on demographics cannot be overstated. The number and the types of workers admitted into the UAE every year, and the duration of their stay, directly affect the demographic profile of the nation's population in terms of size, growth, age, gender, race, health, nationality, as well as socioeconomic status like education and income. Policies that continue to encourage the importing of young, uneducated and low-paid workforce from abroad would only exacerbate the existing gender and ethnic imbalance in the population; as such workers tend to be male, single, and coming from a few south Asian countries. By contrast, labor policies that encourage the use of more skilled knowledge workers are more likely to bring in people from more diverse ethnic backgrounds and with more balanced distribution across gender and age. Labor policies also affect demographics through their impact on marital and family relationships, as higher-paid workers are more likely to bring their families to the UAE or start one in the country than low-paid laborers are. The impact of labor policies on demographics of local population is significant too, most likely through their impact on female employment and costs of living, which subsequently affect local people's marriage patterns and fertility rates.

Number:

ZU-WP 2012-003

Title:

Duration of Stay of Expatriates in the UAE

By: Dr. Mouawiya Al Awad,Dr. Steffen Hertog,Dr. Samer Kherfi,Mariam Alaryani

Abstract:

Shares of expatriates of total population in the UAE have been consistently on the rise. It is widely believed that the very high number of expatriates is the main cause of the imbalance in the population structure in the country. In addition, increasing numbers of expatriates from certain regions may imply possible risks related to security, social and economic conditions in the country. This research aims at looking at the possibilities of implementing a system in which duration of stay of expatriate workers in the UAE labor market is limited to a maximum number of years. In particular, the research intends to provide an overview of duration of stay of expatriates in the UAE in relation to nationalities, occupations, sectors, skills and educational levels and to supply a number of scenarios which can be implemented in the UAE and the pros and cons of each scenario in terms economic and demographic factors.

Number:

ZU-WP 2012-002

Title:

The Effects of New labor Decrees on the Labor Market in the UAE

By: Dr. Mouawiya Al Awad,

Abstract:

The new labor decrees issued recently by the Ministry of Labor represent a quantum leap in dealing with private sector companies, as they emphasize the costs to the offending companies and encourage Emiratization and recruitment of more skilled labor, in addition to the establishment of minimum wages that apply to skilled labor under certain conditions. It is necessary to consider the impact of these labor decrees on labor market conditions because labor market conditions have essential effects on efforts of decision makers in the country to move the economy from its current status, which depends on the activities of a labor-intensive, to knowledge-based economy that depends on highly skilled labor and advanced technology.

Number:

ZU-WP 2012-001

Title:

An Investigation into the Labor Market Behavior and Characteristics of Emirati Unemployed

By: Dr. Mouawiya Al Awad,Dr. Samer Kherfi,Dr. George Naufal

Abstract:

The strong and robust growth of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) over the past decade has significantly raised the standards of living in the country, and has created remarkable economic and social transformations. However, there is some concern that strong output growth has yet to translate into an equivalent growth of jobs for UAE citizens, particularly outside the public sector and among young nationals. A careful estimate shows that the number of unemployed Emiratis by the end of 2011 is 34750, of which 72 percent are women, and 65 percent are youth. Among the youth, the percentage of unemployed females is 70 percent. In 2010 the Emirati unemployment rate was estimated at 14 percent; 8 percent among males and 28 percent among females. In 2011, the unemployment rate is estimated at 12.8%; the highest unemployment rate is in Al Fujairah (19.5%) followed by Abu Dhabi (15.1%) and the lowest rate estimated in Dubai at 7%.

Number:

ZU-WP 2011-004

Title:

Employment and Unemployment of Emiratis in Northern Emirates (in Arabic)

By: Mouawiya Al Awad, Ibrahim Al Fiqi

Abstract:

This research discusses the new developments in the national workforce in the Northern Emirates of the UAE in terms of employment and unemployment, in order to support efforts to develop a clear strategy for employing Emiratis in those emirates. The study focuses four topics: determining the growth in demand for employment in the Northern Emirates, studying developments in the national workforce and employment areas and self-employment for Emirati male and female, determining the extent of unemployment and job search mechanisms among Emiratis and assessing the demand for employment in the private sector in the Northern Emirates.

Number:

ZU-WP 2011-003

Title:

Trade Liberalization and Taxation: A Multi-Sector Dynamic CGE Model for the United Arab Emirates

By: Nico Vellinga

Abstract:

This paper develops a forward looking, multi-sector, dynamic computable general equilibrium model with oil for the United Arab Emirates. The model addresses three issues. The first is trade liberalization, where the UAE unilaterally lowers import taris. This has a favorable impact on welfare as domestic production is expanding, although labor-intensive sectors face a cost disadvantage and they are shrinking. The second issue, government revenue diversification, is simulated by increasing the indirect tax rate on goods to make the government less dependent on oil. This has an adverse effect on welfare as the economy is shrinking and production shifts from domestic production to exports, especially for labor-intensive sectors. Finally, a higher oil price has a favorable impact on welfare and overall, the economy is expanding, but more because of increased consumption and less because of increased production. This paper is the first attempt to address these issues in a dynamic forward looking general equilibrium context of the UAE and the Arab Gulf region.

Number:

ZU-WP 2011-002

Title:

Projection of skilled Labor Requirements in the UAE 2011-2025

By: Mouawiya Al Awad

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to shed some light on the expected future path of economic growth in the country in relation to the planned development and to assess the needs for skilled workers to achieve this. According to our models and assumptions, it is expected that the level of real GDP in 2025 will be between 1,300 and 1,540 billion AED. This refers to an average real economic growth of around 5% annually between 2011 and 2025. Currently, only around 19.8 of expatriate workers are skilled, while 70.9% of Emirati workers are considered to be skilled using our definition of skilled workers. Therefore, in total, less than 20% of all workers in the UAE are skilled.

Number:

ZU-WP 2011-001

Title:

Shifting Non-Work related Benefits to Work-Related Benefits to resolve the Unemployment of Locals in a Typical Oil-Rich Gulf Country

By: Nico Vellinga

Abstract:

The government of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) is sharing the oil wealth with the local population through various generous subsidies. Most nationals work for the government and compared to the private sector their salaries are far better, they have better working hours and more vacation days. A large pool of low wage migrant workers is active within the country. These two combined lead to unemployment of locals as they cannot compete in the private sector with the low wage migrant workers. Unemployment in 2008 amounts to 38, 186 Emiratis, out of the Emirati labor force of 468, 215. There is no unemployment of non-nationals as they leave the country if they are out of a job and cannot find another job. We conduct a possible cost-neutral policy experiment aimed at increasing the low levels of employment of nationals. Part of the non-work related benefits to the local population are shifted to work-related benefits. The general subsidy to nationals is reduced by 1.0% and this allows for a wage subsidy of 0.9%. The effects of this experiment are analyzed using a multi-sector forward-looking dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model and lead to an immediate drop of unemployment by 4.26%. Over time unemployment settles at a value that is 4.37% lower than its base run value. This is the first attemp to create an forward-looking multisector model for the Gulf region.

Number:

ZU-WP 2010-003

Title:

The Role of Manufacturing in Promoting Sustainable Economic Growth in the GCC

By: Mouawiya Al Awad

Abstract:

Over the past decade, manufacturing levels and manufacturing shares of non-oil GDP were growing in the GCC economies. However, this paper shows that the importance of manufacturing or non-oil GDP in general was declining relative to the oil sectors in these countries. This paper also shows that manufacturing is strongly linked to non-oil economic growth in the GCC over the long run, in a way that income and population are both important to stimulate manufacturing in the GCC, especially income. In the short run, manufacturing in the GCC countries has no significant effects on stimulating the growth levels of real non-oil GDP and that government spending might not be effective in terms of deriving the growth of non-oil GDP or stimulating diversification efforts in the GCC countries over the sample period.

Number:

ZU-WP 2010-002

Title:

WAGES IN THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

By: Dr. Qingxia Tong

Abstract:

Wage and salaries are the main part of labor costs for employers and main source of income for the employed. They are crucial information in business decision making and policy making. In an increasingly globalized world economy where capital, know-how, and talents are more mobile than ever before, wages and salaries are not immune to the impact of globalization and international competition. Workers compete not only with their fellow workers on domestic labor markets for better jobs and better pay, but also compete with foreign workers in foreign countries or with migrant workers who have come to the host countries for work. International competition has the tendency of driving down the gap of labor costs along certain dimensions but exacerbates the gap along other dimensions. As a result, wages reflect not only the supply and demand on domestic markets but on international markets as well, especially for countries with an open labor market.

Number:

ZU-WP 2010-001

Title:

The Cost of Foreign Labor in the United Arab Emirates

By: Mouawiya Al Awad

Abstract:

The aims of this study are to estimate and analyze the labor cost and its distribution in the UAE and to decompose it to direct cost to firms (e.g., wages, non-wage benefits, recruitment costs, labor fees, insurance, end of services) and indirect costs (e.g., energy subsidies, use of public services and infrastructure, security and social risks, etc). Those costs are compared to and linked to productivity estimates of foreign workers to draw analysis of the impacts of these costs on several labor market issues and on the ability of the UAE economy to compete in international markets.